Kidney stones can be simply described as small pieces of solid matter that tend to form in kidneys during the process of blood filtration. These small stones are normally brown or yellow in color and have varied shapes and sizes. In some cases, the may have jagged edges while sometimes they have a relatively smooth surface.
A kidney stone may either remain within the kidney or it may move down the urinary tract which often causes intense pain depending on the size and make up of the stone.
So how are they formed? Well, they are a result of a significant increase in calcium phosphorus and oxalate. These substances occur naturally in the kidneys, however, when they increase in concentration through a process called nephrolithiasis, it leads to the formation of stones. Nephrolithiasis can be attributed to a number of factors that include poor diet, low intake of fluids, and medication. Other factors that may be attributed to the occurrence of kidney stones includes family history, blockage of urinary tract, digestive issues and chronic urinary infections.
The four types of kidney stones include uric acid, struvite, calcium and cystine stones. The most common kinds of kidney stones are calcium based and they come in two forms, calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate.